In Indonesia, the economic development priorities bring both positive and negative impacts to the social cultural life. The top down development approaches, which has been applied for more than twenty years, bring considerably significant impact to the life of community. Linda Darmajanti
In Indonesia, the economic development priorities bring both positive and negative impacts to the social cultural life. The top down development approaches, which has been applied for more than twenty years, bring considerably significant impact to the life of community. People tend to be passive, looking forward to the hands of government to overcome their day-to-day problems. The failure of these development approaches hence encourages the emergence of new paradigms that stressed on the development that rely heavily on the community (bottom up). In the mean time, may people doubt the ability of the community in solving their problems, inclusive of the poverty problems. On the other side, the development of the world economic and political system has influenced many developing countries. During the past ten years, sponsored by World Bank social scientist have tried to focus their attention on the development of social capital studies in order to overcome the poverty problem in the third world countries. This condition is a consequence of social changes as an impact of the economic development and the information and communication technology advancement through the process of globalization. This situation motivated the writer to observe the social life or urban community neighborhood in Jakarta.
From the writer point of views, for the urban community like Jakarta the social value should be examine from realistic framework to create democracy life towards the civil community. The focused not only in the poverty problems but more general and comprehensive. The classical sociology theory stated that the urban community has relatively weak social lifestyles and different solidarity. Moreover, the type of alliance can be found in certain community. It consequently creates a viewpoint that the prominent social values in life are value, norm and social trust. This social capital in the local community should be function as a stabilizator between the other capitals such as physical, human, financial or economic capital and it should be an alternative economic for the urban community. The key concept of social capital is how people can easily working together (cooperative). The existing social capital studies use its members to measure the social capital and found that social capital cooperation strength as co-production is the result of the cooperation between the organizations. Therefore, the writer forms a formula of social capital as the organization life where people could overcome problems in their own community neighborhoods (spatial). The organizational life describes the cooperation network between people in the community in achieving their goals because they live together in the same neighborhood. The sociability between members in the community means social concern values, social trust and social solidarity between community members in this dissertation are the sources of social capital which greatly influences the organizational life dynamics. This study is aim to examine the relationship between the sociability and the organizational life in the community level. The difficulties in measuring the elements involved in social capital can be found in many literatures about the social capital studies. Therefore, this study uses the triangulate method that collaborates both quantitative and qualitative methods. The accuracy in quantitative measurements is the limitations of this study, which will be develop in the next research to find more valid measurement indicators. This research was done in Kelurahan Gandaria Utara and expected to represent the heterogen and complex characteristics of Jakarta’s communities. The survey was done in 227 households as observation units and the head of household or adult member as the unit of analysis. The qualitative data was gathered by the in-depth interview with the informants and the focused group discussion in the community.
The finding of this study is there is no relationship between the organizational life and the sociability life as social capital sources. The dynamics of organizational life depends heavily on the existence of individual or social actors. These actors play greater role in sociability life. The existing social capital sources are likely to rely on social actors, but unrelated to the organizational life between people. Moreover, the social cohesion between neighbors tends to weaken the social control mechanism between peoples in the community. Eventhough the significant relationship between the length of stay of household and the social concerns between community members and local social organization life can be found in the prediction of social capitals models.
This study brings empiric impacts that, in the micro level, never get trapped to observe social capital as abstract sociological concepts (the essence of social life) or social attitude. It hence would be more useful if being developed patterns of social life in the social capital framework. The prominent theoretic impact is how to see the social capital from the viewpoints that stressed on the changing situation in the existing theory, the locality context and the world economic and political systems; in many countries particularly urban community in the third world countries like Indonesia which are mostly in the transitional stage. For many decision-makers and regulators, the implementations of development programs in increasing the quality of the spatial community life should consider the existence of the local community organizations, from the organizational dynamics, performance and the cooperation network between the different types of organizations.